Chelmsford is the county town of Essex, England.
It is 30 miles (48.5 km) northeast of Charing Cross London. Chelmsford is in the centre of Essex, and has been the county town since 1215. During the Peasants' Revolt, Chelmsford was made capital of England.
It is also the seat of the Borough of Chelmsford, which includes the new (ca. 1970s) settlement of South Woodham Ferrers on the banks of the River Crouch. The Borough Council celebrated its centenary in 1988 (it had been incorporated as a municipal borough on 19 September 1888 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1882), and the town had its 800th anniversary in 1999.
Chelmsford Cathedral is the second smallest cathedral in England after Derby Cathedral. It was built in the 15th and early 16th centuries, when it was the parish church of the prosperous medieval town. The Diocese (established in 1914) covers all of Essex and much of East London.
John Dee — noted Elizabethan philosopher and scientist, and also responsible for the English translation of Euclid — was educated at the Chantry School (later re-founded as the Grammar School) in the sixteenth century. Chelmsford is also home to part of the Anglia Ruskin University and to the grammar schools of Chelmsford County High School and King Edward VI Grammar School, founded in 1551 by charter of King Edward VI on the site of an earlier educational foundation (although evidence suggests it could have been around as early as 1292).
The total population of the area covered by the Borough council is 157,748 (ONS 2004 estimate). Approximately 60,000 live in the town and over 42,400 in the surrounding suburban and semi-rural parishes. Around 16,600 live in South Woodham Ferrers. The remainder of the population live in the surrounding rural areas, including the villages of Galleywood, Bicknacre, East, West and South Hanningfield, Boreham, Ford End, Pleshey, Highwood, Good Easter, High Easter, Chignal St James, Chignal Smealy, Howe Green, Roxwell, Great Leighs, Little Leighs, Broomfield, Great Waltham, Little Waltham, Great Baddow, Little Baddow, Danbury, Sandon, Rettendon, Runwell, Margaretting, Stock and Writtle. (Source: population derived from 2001 census). However this number is expected to rise dramatically, with 40,000 homes to be built in the metropolitan area of the borough which could bring the size of Chelmsford up to over 170,000 to be concentrated around Boreham Airfield, Broomfield, North Springfield and Beaulieu Park. These communities would be primarily built as an urban village design; a place to work, live and play.
Residents of Chelmsford are known as 'Chelmsfordians'.
Chelmsford has two members of Parliament. Simon Burns has been the towns principle M.P. since 1987 (Chelmsford and later West Chelmsford) after the retirement of long standing Chelmsford M.P. Norman St John-Stevas, Baron St John of Fawsley. Following boundary changes in 1997 he was joined by John Whittingdale in the new constituency of Maldon and East Chelmsford.
- Summer: Being in the south east of England, the town enjoys a warmer climate than most of the United Kingdom and has some of the hottest summers in Britain; it is also one of the driest places in the country. Temperatures can often reach 30°C in the summer although this figure was not acheived during 2007. The hottest day on record in the town was on the U.K. wide temperature record breaking day of Sunday August 10, 2003 when 35.2°C (95.4°F) was recorded. Thunderstorms mostly occur during July and August however they can occur anytime of the year.
- Winter: During the winter the temperature rarely stays below 0°C during the day and even with night-time winter temperatures, it's extremely rare to fall below -5°C hence air, hoar and ground frost is very common from November through to March. The coldest temperature recorded in recent times in Chelmsford is -13°C in January 1985. Snow is sometimes seen in the winter months because the town is near to the east coast where cold, moist air is brought in from the North Sea. In recent years there has been up to three inches of snow on days in January and February which has resulted in minor disruption to transport and caused some schools to close. However, the snow tends not to persist for a significant length of time in any noticeable quantity. The last substantial snowfalls in Chelmsford were on 14 February 1991 and 7 January 1982 when around 18 to 24 inches fell.
From over 600,000 years ago, during the Pleistocene ice age, until the Anglian glaciation around 475,000 years ago, the early River Thames flowed through the area where Chelmsford now stands, from Harlow to Colchester, before crossing what is now the North Sea to become a tributary of the Rhine. Consequently gravel deposits are frequently found in the area and current and former gravel pits in the district are common.
A major new development almost completed in the West End of Chelmsford just off Duke Street called "53 Park Central" which contains a new Bus Station, shops and luxury apartments. The Bus Station and shops were opened in January 2007 while the rest of the development will be ready in September 2007.
Another site near the large suburb of Springfield is in its planning stages. It will be a new neighbourhood which is supposed to be an urban village containing 3,500 homes. A controversial Northern Relief Road would be built.
The Public House "The Army and Navy" from which the notorious roundabout gets its name was demolished in March 2007. It will be replaced by a Travelodge Hotel, a Frankie and Benny's Restaurant and private flats although building work has yet to start, the project is due for completion during 2009.
One of Chelmsford's tallest buildings, Melbourne Court in Melbourne Avenue is currently receiving an £8m investment for extensive refurbishment and to create a new Neighbourhood Centre due for completion in 2009.
Recently plans were revealed for "Waterside", a large development of shops, bars and restaurants on the banks of the River Chelmer, near the Army & Navy. If this development goes ahead a new bridge and central link road would be built.
Chelmsford's official twin towns are:
- Backnang (Germany)
- Annonay (France)
- Chelmsford, Massachusetts (USA)
Chelmsford is home to two active radio stations:
- Essex FM — On air since 12th September 1981 and owned by GCap Media, which moved to studios in Glebe Road in late 2004. It had previously been based in Southend.
- BBC Essex — On air since 5th November 1986, its studios are based in New London Road.
Two other stations with an association with Chelmsford are:
- Chelmsford Calling — A now defunct community radio station. Aimed at the older generation, it played a mix of jazz and comedy programmes. The station was under a Restricted Service Licence and ceased broadcasting on 11 February 2007 after just under two months on air.
- Dream 107.7 FM recently moved to studios in Heybridge near Maldon, having vacated its Chelmsford premises in November 2006. This station was previously known as 107.7 Chelmer FM up to 2002. The station began broadcasting on 18th October 1998. It is the local station for mid-Essex. Tindle Radio have owned this station since 2002, where it was purchased from Mid Essex Radio Ltd.
- Essex Chronicle. Founded as the "Chelmsford Chronicle" in 1764, the weekly "Essex Chronicle" newspaper is said to be the longest in continuous publication in the country. Until the closure of the printing plant in 2002, the paper was also printed in the town. It is now printed on presses by the Northcliffe Group which now owns the paper.
- Chelmsford Weekly News. Free to every home.
- Chelmsford and Maldon Yellow Advertiser. Free to every home.
- The GHQ Line part of the British hardened field defences of World War II runs directly through Chelmsford with many pillboxes still in existence to the North and South of the town.
- Hylands House doubled as the U.S. White House in the 2004 film Chasing Liberty.
- Chelmsford Prison was used for interior and some exterior scenes of the film version of the TV show Porridge. Filming was allowed in the prison while it was being refurbished after the disastrous fire there in 1978.
- Chelmsford Prison was also the site of a 1976 live album recording by the Sex Pistols.
- Chelmsford is also the setting for MTV's alternative teen comedy mini-series the Mighty Moshin' Emo Rangers.
- Chelmsford two tallest buildings, Melbourne Court built in 1962 in Melbourne Avenue, locally known as Melbourne flats and the new development nearing completion the 13 floor "53 Park Central" in Duke Street share the same height. 43 metres or 141.04 feet, although the tallest structure by far in the Chelmsford area is the former Chain Home radar tower in the urban village Great Baddow which rises to 110 metres or 360ft. It is a local landmark visible throughout the town and surrounding area.
- Chelmsford is home of Essex street diversions, East Anglia's largest festival of international street theatre and The 3 foot People Festival, the UK's only 4-day festival exclusively for under 5 year-olds.
- Chelmsford is the home to Essex Police whose Headquarters are based just off Sandford Road.
- Essex County Council have their Headquarters in Chelmsford at the County Hall in Duke Street.
- Chelmsford is the location of the renowned Broomfield Hospital.
Chelmsford has a vibrant nightlife scene with many Nightclubs, Pubs, Wine Bars and Restaurants in the town centre area, particularly in Duke Street, Moulsham Street and the bottom section of Springfield Road. Its central Essex location and good public transport links make the town ideal for revellers to visit from surrounding areas.
Sport in Chelmsford
- Essex County Cricket Club
is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic Cricket structure, representing the county of Essex. The club is based at the County Ground, New Writtle Street Chelmsford.
- Chelmsford City F.C.
Chelmsford City Football Club play in the Isthmian League Premier Division. The Club's home ground is at the Chelmsford Sport & Athletics Centre, Melbourne Park where they share with Chelmsford Athletic Club.
- Chelmsford Hockey Club
are a Men's and Ladies (field) hockey Club based in the County of Essex (England). It has over one hundred and fifty regular adult playing members, of all ages and abilities, as well as a thriving youth section. It fields eight Men's teams and five Ladies teams every weekend, including two Men's Veterans' XI's.
The Ladies 1st XI compete in the English Hockey League Premier Division and the Men's 1st XI compete in the English Hockey League Division 1.
The remaining Men's teams play in the East League while the other Ladies XIs play in the East Premier League and Essex League.
The Club is undoubtedly one of the most successful Hockey Clubs in the country.
- Chelmsford Chieftains Ice Hockey Team
Chelmsford Chieftains are a Ice Hockey Team that are based at the Riverside Ice and leisure centre and play in the English Premier Ice Hockey League.
Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel Chelmsford aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wiklpedia und steht unter der GNU-Lizenz für freie Dokumentation. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren verfügbar.